How do internal short circuit? Researcher Minho Kim has published his paper "A fast and efficient pre-doping approach to high energy density lithium-ion hybrid capacitors".
Internal short-circuit method (ISC) is also called direct contact (DC) method. The pre-lithiated can achieved through direct physical contact between negative electrode and lithium metal with electrolyte in pressure.
In this method, the pre-lithiation process was completed by a self-discharge mechanism. Electrons will pass through the contact point between the lithium metal and anode in the effect of potential difference. The process of ISC is simple, fast and controllable.