Sodium vanadium titanium phosphate electrode for symmetric sodium-ion batteries with high power and long lifespan
Sodium-ion batteries operating at ambient temperature hold great promise for use in grid energy storage owing to their significant cost advantages. However,
challenges remain in the development of suitable electrode materials to enable long lifespan and high rate capability. Here we report a sodium super-ionic conductor structured electrode, sodium vanadium titanium phosphate, which delivers a high specific capacity of 147?mA?h?g-1 at a rate of 0.1 C and excellent capacity retentions at high rates. A symmetric sodium-ion full cell demonstrates a superior rate capability with a specific capacity of about 49?mA?h?g-1 at 20 C rate and ultralong lifetime over 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, in situ synchrotron diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurement are carried out to unravel the underlying sodium storage mechanism and charge compensation behaviour. Our results suggest the potential application of symmetric batteries for electrochemical energy storage given the superior rate capability and long cycle life.