Approximate range of average discharge potentials and specific capacity of some of the most common (a) intercalation-type cathodes (experimental), (b) conversion-type cathodes (theoretical), (c) conversion type anodes (experimental), and (d) an overview of the average discharge potentials and specific capacities for all types of electrodes.
The Li-ion battery has clear fundamental advantages and decades of research which have developed it into the high energy density, high cycle life, high efficiency battery that it is today. Yet research continues on new electrode materials to push the boundaries of cost, energy density, power density, cycle life, and safety. Various promising anode and cathode materials exist, but many suffer from limited electrical conductivity, slow Li transport, dissolution or other unfavorable interactions with electrolyte, low thermal stability, high volume expansion, and mechanical brittleness. Various methods have been pursued to overcome these challenges.
There is a chart depicting average electrode potential against experimentally accessible (for anodes and intercalation cathodes) or theoretical (for conversion cathodes) capacity.
This allows the reader to evaluate various anode and cathode combinations and their theoretical cell voltage, capacity, and energy density. The chart can also be used to identify suitable electrolytes, additives, and current collectors for the electrode materials of choice.
The acronyms for the intercalation materials are:
LCO for “lithium cobalt oxide”,
LMO for “lithium manganese oxide”,
NCM for “nickel cobalt manganese oxide”,
NCA for “nickel cobalt aluminum oxide”,
LCP for “lithium cobalt phosphate”,
LFP for “lithium iron phosphate”,
LFSF for “lithium iron fluorosulfate”, and
LTS for “lithium titanium sulfide”.
New types of Lithium ion approaches are delaying any shift to Lithium sulfur and other types of batteries