INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICULES
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2016-12-28

Negating interfacial impedance in garnet-based solid-state Li metal batteries




Garnet-type solid-state electrolytes have attracted extensive attention due to their high ionic conductivity, approaching 1?mS?cm-1, excellent environmental stability, and wide electrochemical stability window, from lithium metal to ~6?V. However, to date, there has been little success in the development of high-performance solid-state batteries using these exceptional materials, the major challenge being the high solid–solid interfacial impedance between the garnet electrolyte and electrode materials.
In this work, we effectively address the large interfacial impedance between a lithium metal anode and the garnet electrolyte using ultrathin aluminium oxide (Al2O3) by atomic layer deposition. Li7La2.75Ca0.25Zr1.75Nb0.25O12 (LLCZN) is the garnet composition of choice in this work due to its reduced sintering temperature and increased lithium ion conductivity. A significant decrease of interfacial impedance, from 1,710???cm2 to 1???cm2, was observed at room temperature, effectively negating the lithium metal/garnet interfacial impedance. Experimental and computational results reveal that the oxide coating enables wetting of metallic lithium in contact with the garnet electrolyte surface and the lithiated-alumina interface allows effective lithium ion transport between the lithium metal anode and garnet electrolyte. We also demonstrate a working cell with a lithium metal anode, garnet electrolyte and a high-voltage cathode by applying the newly developed interface chemistry.